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两段式煤气发生炉工艺流程Process flow of two-stage gas generator

    煤气发生炉备有竖管式冷却器和洗涤器。煤气由煤气发生炉进入竖管式冷却器,在此进行初步的冷却和除尘。在竖管式冷却器的盖上装有带顶端活门的放空管和三个用以分配喷淋煤气用水的喷洒器。竖管式冷却器的下部装有两个水封。其中下面的一个用以在生产进行中清扫翌管式冷却器,其另一个用以截断系就。煤气由竖管式冷却器去放置在室外的洗涤器,后者用于煤气的最后的冷却。在洗滁器的盖上装有吹出管,水9盖的中心来到喷雾器。洗滁器的下部有水封,用以在生产进行中清除带灰焦油。洗滋器内装格栅式琪充物。  经冷却、净制的煤气进入粗煤气总管,由此利用排送机送入除雾器,在此截留机械浮悬的水滴。在除雾器之后,煤气集于净制煤气的总管,再循煤气管去消费部门。 在这种煤气发生炉中有着水的循环。使用过的水利用重力由沟槽和管道流入带灰焦油沉淀池,在橙清之后由泵打到热水赊槽并在冷水塔中冷却,然后由冷水塔流向竖管式冷却器和洗涤器。上述流程的缺点是煤气物理热的损失,而物理热是个很大的数值相当于干煤气发热值的10-13%。除此之外,在这种流程中,大大地增大了冷却水的消耗量,因而增大了电能的淆耗并使煤气发生站的供水工程复杂化。

    在个别煤气发生炉的结构中考虑到煤气物理热的利用。在前面第五篇已经说明了具有低压蒸发器的煤气发生沪和高压锅炉一煤气发生炉的结构。这种煤气发生炉同时也是蒸汽的发生装置。 在通常的煤气发生炉结构,煤气的物理热的利用可以按照下列的流程:

    1)煤气发生炉—除尘器—废热锅炉—洗涤器—煤气总管—排送机—除雾器—去消费部们的煤气管;

    2)煤气发生炉—两重竖管式冷却器——煤气总管——三段洗A器—排送机—除雾器—去消费部门的煤气管;

    3)煤气发生炉—除尘器—蓄热器—洗涤器—煤气总管—排送机—除雾器—去消费部门的煤气管。

    图1所示为具有废热锅沪、气化非焦油性燃料钓片却煤气的煤气发生站流程。从流程中可以看到,废热锅炉设置在除尘器之后,使在扫过其表面的煤气中,巳除去了大粒的灰尘。在废热锅炉中所得的燕气既可以用于气化,也可以用于外部的消费(加热、生活用等)。

    煤气发生炉具有两段式洗滁器投备的煤气发生站,最适于当煤气发生炉不具有蒸汽水套,或者当由蒸汽水套所产生的蒸汽不足以保证要的鼓风饱和温度的场合。三段洗滁器能降低被排出的水量。

    在煤气进路上具有用以拍热鼓风的蓄热器的煤气发生站流程,力求制取较高发热值的煤气,期间不得不在鼓风中引入补足的水蒸汽。由于煤气中热量的价格大大地高于水燕汽中热量的价格,因此将煤气的物理热转变为发热值比制取水蒸汽较为适当,而这对于由非焦油性燃料所制得的煤气特别重要,因为这种煤气的发热值很低,常常不足以保证获得炉子所需要的温度。

    为了增高煤气的发热植,除了预热鼓风外,还可以利用焦油的轻质馏份以增热煤气,这可以增强火焰的光辉和幅射。焰炬黑度的不足,除了难于调节非焦油性煤气的燃烧过程外,还可导致随着由炉子排出气体的热损失的增大。

    在气化无烟煤和碎焦,并在冷却系扰中具有水循环时,常常产生装置的金属零件腐蚀的困难。由于这种关系,在许多场合,不使用水的循环,而这势必会增大水的消耗率。在这种情形下,用石灰乳或碳酸钠溶液中和循环中的水是适当的。这同时也降低了煤气中的硫化氢的含量。上述气化非焦油性燃料的流程,由于它的简单,采用于甚至气化焦油性燃料的不大的煤气发生站。

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The gas generator is equipped with a standpipe cooler and scrubber.The gas enters the standpipe cooler from the gas generator, where the initial cooling and dust removal is carried out.The cover of the standpipe cooler is fitted with a vent with a top valve and three sprinklers for distributing water for spraying gas.The lower part of the standpipe cooler is fitted with two water seals.One of the following is used to clean the tubular cooler during production, and the other is used to cut off the system.The gas is supplied by a standpipe cooler to an outdoor scrubber, which is used for the final cooling of the gas.A blowout tube is arranged on the cover of the wash tank, with the center of the 9 cover coming to the sprayer.The lower part of the scrubber has a water seal to remove ash tar during production.The cleaner is equipped with a grille - type qi - filling.The cooled, cleanly made gas enters the coarse gas main pipe, from which it is fed into the defogging device by the exhaust feeder, where it intercepts the mechanically floating water droplets.After the mist eliminator, the gas is collected in the main pipe of the net gas and then routed to the consuming department.There is a circulation of water in this gas generator.The used water flows by gravity from the trenches and pipes into the ash tar settling basin, which is then pumped to the hot water trust and cooled in the chiller, which then flows from the chiller to the standpipe cooler and scrubber.The disadvantage of the above process is the loss of physical heat of the gas, which is a large amount equivalent to 10-13% of the heat value of dry gas.In addition, in this process there is a significant increase in the consumption of cooling water, resulting in increased electrical energy consumption and complications for the supply of gas stations.

The utilization of physical heat of gas is considered in the structure of individual gas generators.The structure of a gas generator for Shanghai and a gas generator for a high pressure boiler has been described in the fifth part above.The gas generator is also a steam generator.In the usual gasifier structure, the physical heat of the gas can be used according to the following procedure:

1) Gas producer - dust collector - waste heat boiler - scrubber - gas main pipe - exhaust feeder - mist eliminator - to the gas pipe of the consumption department;

2) Gas producer -- double standpipe cooler -- gas main -- three-stage A washer -- exhaust feeder -- mist eliminator -- to the gas pipe of the consuming department;

3) Gas producer - dust collector - heat accumulator - scrubber - gas main pipe - exhaust feeder - mist eliminator - to the gas pipe of the consumption department.

FIG. 1 shows the flow of a gas generating station with waste heat boiler and gasification non-tar fuel fishing blade gas.As can be seen from the process, the waste heat boiler is set after the dust collector, so that in the gas swept over its surface, has removed the large particles of dust.Delphinia obtained from waste heat boilers can be used for gasification as well as external consumption (heating, living, etc.).

Gas generator station with two stage scrubber is most suitable when the gas generator does not have steam jacket or when the steam produced by the steam jacket is not enough to ensure the desired blast saturation temperature.Three-stage washing system can reduce the amount of water discharged.

The process of a gas generating station with a regenerator for beating a hot blast on the gas inlet is designed to produce gas with a higher calorific value, during which supplementary water vapour has to be introduced into the blast.Due to heat in the gas price is greatly higher than that of the water yan in the steam heat, so will the gas physical heat into calorific value than making water vapor is more appropriate, and that for made by FeiJiaoYou sex fuel gas is particularly important, because this kind of low calorific value gas, often not enough to ensure the temperature needed for the stove.

In order to increase the heating of the gas plants, in addition to preheating the blast air, the light fractions of tar can also be used to heat the gas, which can enhance the brightness and amplitude of the flame.The lack of blackness of the torch, in addition to the difficulty of regulating the combustion process of non-tar gas, can also lead to the increase in the heat loss of gas discharged from the furnace.

In gasifying anthracite and broken coke, and having water circulation in the cooling system disturbance, corrosion difficulties often arise in the metal parts of the device.Because of this relationship, in many cases, the water cycle is not used, which inevitably increases the rate of water consumption.In this case, it is appropriate to neutralize the circulating water with a solution of lime milk or sodium carbonate.This also reduces the amount of hydrogen sulfide in the gas.The process described above for gasifying non-tar fuels is, because of its simplicity, used in small gas generation stations where even tartar fuels are gasified.

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